Sunday, January 31, 2021

Operating Tips for an Icing Encounter in the Cessna Caravan

Operating Tips for an Icing Encounter in the Cessna Caravan 

In the Northern Hemisphere, there is still one more month of Winter remaining, one more month of increased chances that the Caravan that you fly will have an icing encounter. Are you familiar with the various steps that you can take to help manage the impact of an icing encounter? Whether you own, fly or manage a Cessna Caravan, we here at Caravan Nation recommend that you, not only read this article, but print and save the below listed operating tips for future reference.

The operating tips listed below are part of the FedEx Caravan Icing Program. "In the Caravan, like every other airplane, you can help manage the impact of an icing encounter by remembering two general rules: A) Keep the airspeed/power up and, B) Keep the deck angle/AOA down. Additionally we recommend that you consider the following:

1. Make sure that you receive a thorough weather briefing. Know the right questions to ask, and don't hesitate to ask them.

2. Compare frontal movement with the proposed flight path, remember to look well up-wind of your course line to see what kind of weather is approaching your flight path.

3. Pre-flight ALL of the aircraft anti/de-ice systems for proper operation and cycle sequences.

4. Periodically wax areas of the aircraft that are exposed to ice accumulation: e.g.
  • Nose wheel fairings & accessories (not the shock)
  • Engine cowling
  • Cargo pod
  • Wing-strut/wing-joint area including tie-down hook
  • Main landing gear dressing including brake-pad housing, but not the brake-disk
  • Gurney-strip of the trailing edge of the flaps
  • Left & right outer elevator horn
5. Exercise self-discipline and try to envision ALL possible "What if (s)" that might be encountered during the initial take-off and climb in icing conditions.

6. Use of flaps for take-off should be carefully evaluated when icing is anticipated during departure.

7. Remember... snow, slush, or water standing on the runway will greatly increase the required take-off distance, as well as landing roll. Be particularly careful when a take-off is being conducted. Slow acceleration to liftoff speed followed by an ABORT will require considerably more runway. Therefore, where a choice can be made, pick the longest runway for both take-off and landing.

8. After take-off, increase speed to 110-115 kts as quickly as possible. This will help keep ice formation on the protected areas of the aircraft. Continue to climb with a minimum deck-angle.

9. At airports where SIDs are used, pick a direction of departure which has the lowest climb-gradient. Once you are at a safe altitude you can then proceed to your destination.

10. Constantly monitor & assess the icing situation of your aircraft. Be particularly alert to OAT changes during the climb. Observing the OAT during your climb to altitude can provide clues which could save your life.

11. Consider not using the auto-pilot when operating in ice. This is not to imply that the auto-pilot is not approved for ice operation, but that a pilot can not possibly know how the aircraft is FEELING if the auto-pilot is engaged.

12. When encountering icing and the airspeed begins to drop below 130 KIAS, MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS POWER e.g. 1865# torque/805 C ITT (675 HP) as applicable, should be used.

13. De-ice boots are more effective at higher airspeeds. At lower speeds effectiveness may be improved by SMOOTHLY changing the pitch attitude as the boots are being MANUALLY inflated which will allow the changing relative wind to assist in removing the ice from the wing leading edge.

14. A vibration may occur as ice starts to build on the propeller hub and the back side of the blade near the hub. Under extreme conditions the vibration may continue to increase the the point where the instrument panel begins to shake. In conditions of MODERATE and above accumulation rates, the automatic propeller anti-ice system may not be sufficient to keep the propeller clear of ice. Under these conditions, consider using the MANUAL propeller anti-ice feature and briskly cycling the prop between the maximum and minimum RPM (minimum 200 RPM change) to assist in removing the ice.

15. Don't keep flying into deteriorating conditions. Have a plan, e.g. climb, descend or turn to get to less severe conditions if it become necessary. KEEP YOUR SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AHEAD OF THE AIRPLANE. DON'T ALLOW YOURSELF TO RUN OUT OF OPTIONS!

16. Communicate your situation with ATC. Keep them advised of your icing problems. Asking for help is not a sign of weakness. Failing to use all of the resources at your disposal is sellling yourself short. DON'T LET A MACHO ATTITUDE OVERLOAD YOUR BOAT!

17. Monitor the terminal approach frequency while you are still in the enroute portion. This will allow you to listen-in on any problems other pilots may be encountering while in their attempt to land. During the approach keep your air-speed at least 15-20 knots higher than normal. Stall speed increases with ice accumulation.

18. Do not cycle the boots during landing since boot inflation may increase stall speeds by as much as 10 knots.

19. Fly the aircraft down-to-the-ground, do not attempt a normal flare-out to a stalled landing.

If you have any questions about this article, contact CaravanNation.com 
Never get complacent... stay proficient!

 

Friday, July 3, 2020

Another AC-208 Eliminator on the Assembly Line



According to our sources there is currently another Grand Caravan EX that is being converted by Northrup Grumman Systems Corp. (El Sugundo, California) to an AC-208 "Eliminator" Armed Caravan. The AC-208 is 1 of 8 aircraft that are in Northrup Grumman's Special Mission portfolio of aircraft. The other aircraft in that line-up are the Alenia C-27J, CASA CN-235/295, Lockheed C-130, Bombardier Dash-8, Beechcraft King Air, Sikorsky H-60 Blackhawk and the AgustaWestland AW139.

According to Northrup Grumman, "The AC-208 Eliminator builds on Northrup Grumman's battle-proven AC-208 Armed Caravan and offers customers a highly-capable and cost-effective reconnaissance and ground attack capability with a critical offensive and operational over-watch capability in the Counter-Insurgency (COIN) fight. The Eliminator is able to find, fix, identify, track, target and engage emerging and time-sensitive targets with its 2.75" guided rockets and/or AGM-114 HELLFIRE missile payload, based on mission requirements."

These unique Caravans have or will be delivered to countries in the Middle East and Africa including these countries: Iraq, Lebanon, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso.


 ~ Chris Rosenfelt


CaravanNation.com

Friday, February 14, 2020

All Hail the Pratt & Whitney PT6 Turboprop Engine!



All Hail the Pratt & Whitney PT6!



Below you will see one of the first photos of the famous Pratt & Whitney PT6 turboprop aircraft engine and its designers. This engine is THE rockstar of the turboprop engine world! 

Important Dates:

  • 1958 - Design started
  • 1960 Feb. - First ran
  • 1961 May - First flew
  • 1964 - Entered service
  • 2011 - 50th Anniversary 

On its first flight it was mounted as a third engine on the nose of a Beech 18. That would have been an interesting sight! The test aircraft was switched to a Beech King Air in 1980. The first production model was the PT6A-6 and used on the Beech Queen Air.


The original designers of the PT6

According to the manufacturer over 51,000 units have been produced (as of 2015) and the engine has flown over 400 million hours! Considering that it only has an in-flight engine shut-down once every 651,126 hours, it is one of the most reliable aircraft engines ever. There have been over 69 different versions built. Not all of the versions have been for aircraft, some variants have been used for helicopters, boats, hovercraft, land vehicles and auxiliary power units.

TBO (time between overhauls) ranges between 3600 to 9000 hours and hot section inspections are done between 1800 and 2000 hours.

The PT6-114A in the Cessna Caravan only weighs 350lbs and yet puts out almost 700hp! The PT6 engine is found in most of the turbo-prop airplanes in the United States, including the Cessna Caravan, de Havilland Twin Otter, Air Tractor, Beech 1900, Beech King Air, Beech 99, PAC 750, Quest Kodiak, Pilatus PC-12, Piaggio Avanti, Shorts 360, AgustaWestland AW139 and many more. ALL great aircraft mainly because of their heart.... the PT6. Keep up the great work Pratt & Whitney!

Be sure and check out our friends at pt6nation.com


CaravanNation.com

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Caravan Sales on Caravan Nation



We have multiple clients looking to buy and/or lease Caravans. To have your Caravan listed for sale on the new Caravan Nation Sales page please contact Chris Rosenfelt.

Email: chris@CaravanNation.com


Site: https://caravannation.com/sales.htm



CaravanNation.com

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Startup Commuter FLOAT to use Caravans in Southern California

Flight Global reporting

A startup company in Southern California which hopes to revolutionize the daily commute will launch service in the coming days and plans to offer full air-based commuting schedules from up to 40 regional airports beginning in January.

FLOAT – which stands for “Fly Over All Traffic” – will offer air taxi services to what it calls “supercommuters” in the region. The company plans to operate a fleet of nine Cessna Caravans to what it calls “underused” regional and general aviation airports across the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, renowned for their ground-based traffic problems.
FLOAT Cessna Caravan over Los Angeles
Source: FLOAT
FLOAT Cessna Caravan over Los Angeles
 The company says it has agreements with almost 40 airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John Wayne Airport in Santa Ana and Palm Springs Airport. It is partnering with Pompano Beach, Florida-based operator Southern Airways Express for its planes and crews.

FLOAT executives say its target customer is a commuter who drives 50 miles or more in each direction, which, depending on the time of day and the traffic flow, can take more than two hours on the region’s congested highways.

“FLOAT is shattering the myth that sitting in hours of traffic every day is a necessary and unavoidable way of life in Southern California,” FLOAT co-founder and chief executive Arnel Guiang says. “We live in a rapidly-evolving society of intense time management and instant gratification, and business professionals and their superiors are quickly realizing that spending hours in traffic is cutting into their productivity and work/life balance.”

The company says pricing and routes will vary, but it estimates the cost of a one-way flight could be as low as $30. It is offering monthly subscription packages on selected routes for $1,250, which encompasses roundtrip service five days a week.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Review - Procedures for Exiting Severe Icing



Procedures for Exiting Severe Icing



Here in the Northern Hemisphere ground temperatures have dropped below freezing over much of the population. So we thought that now would be a good time for us Caravan Pilots to review Emergency Procedures in the icing environment.

Please remember that these Emergency Procedures found below are for the Cessna Model 208B (675 SHP) and no others. If you are flying a different model Caravan, please review your aircraft's FAA approved Abbreviated Checklist or Airplane Flight Manual for that specific model.

As stated in the Pilots' Abbreviated Checklist published by Cessna:  

Procedures for Exiting the Severe Icing Environment (As required by AD 96-09-15) 


1. Immediately request priority handling from Air Traffic Control to facilitate a route or an altitude change to exit the severe icing conditions in order to avoid extended exposure to flight conditions more severe than those for which the airplane has been certificated.

2. Avoid abrupt and excessive maneuvering that may exacerbate control difficulties.

3. Do not engage the autopilot.

4. If the autopilot is engaged, hold the control wheel firmly and disengage the autopilot.

5. If an unusual roll response or uncommanded roll control movement is observed, reduce the angle of attack.

6. If the flaps are extended, do not retract them until the airframe is clear of ice.

7. Report these weather conditions to Air Traffic Control.

    If you are a Caravan pilot, I highly recommend that you complete some of Cessna's E-Learning courses on this topic. Courses such as "Caravan Cold Weather Ops" and "Caravan Vodcast Ground Icing Conditions". There are many other interesting courses available, most of which are free and are all available at cessnaelearning.com.

    Fellow Caravan Pilots, please remember to Review Often and Fly Safe so that you can continue to Love What You Do!

    Friday, October 4, 2019

    Textron Delivers 500th Caravan EX

    Cessna Grand Caravan EX celebration
    Charter operator and freight hauler South Aero was the customer for the 500th Cessna Grand Caravan EX. (Photo: Textron Aviation)
    by Jerry Siebenmark AIN

    The Cessna Grand Caravan EX utility turboprop single entered service more than six years ago, and Textron Aviation has delivered its 500th copy, the company announced yesterday. Certified in 2013, it is the third variant of the successful Caravan line first introduced in 1986, but with a more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-140 engine that improved its rate of climb by 38 percent over its predecessor.
    Accepting the milestone Grand Caravan EX was Albuquerque, New Mexico-based South Aero, a charter and freight hauler that operates five Cessna Caravans and nearly 11 flights a day. “The dependability and load-carrying capability of the Grand Caravan EX allows our fleet to operate for thousands of hours across the continental US,” South Aero owner and CEO Wayne South said. “This is an outstanding aircraft for our operations and a platform that our pilots love to fly.”
    The $2.68 million airplane—which includes the optional under-belly cargo pod—can seat up to 14 passengers with a useful load of 3,692 pounds (1,675 kg) and a maximum range of 912 nm.


    Monday, September 30, 2019

    Fly Safarilink Adds Brand New Grand Caravan EX




    Congratulations to Fly Safarilink on their new 2019 Grand Caravan EX!

    After a week long journey from the U.S., the aircraft was met by Yash Desai of Africair Inc. (pictured left), Anu Vohra - Safarilink Marketing Director (pictured center), and Alex Avedi - Safarilink CEO (pictured right), upon arrival at Wilson Airport in Nairobi.

    As Kenya's premier safari airline, Safarilink provides daily scheduled services to 22 destinations in and around Kenya. The Cessna 208B meets the specific requirements of operating into bush airstrips within Kenya's world famous game parks.

    We are proud to add another 208B to Fly Safarilink's growing fleet. Thank you for your continued business and trust in Africair Inc., it is a pleasure to serve you. For more information about Safarilink please visit their website at: https://www.flysafarilink.com/en 


    Posted on CaravanNation.com with permission from Africair Inc. If you have an article that you would like us to publish, send requests to info@CaravanNation.com

    Tuesday, August 13, 2019

    10 Things You (probably) Did Not Know About the Caravan



    Now and then our readers will share with us interesting facts that we did not know about the Cessna Caravan or facts that we do not believe that our average reader would know. This inspired the creation of the list found below. We hope that you enjoy and share with us any other not-so-commonly known facts that you know about the Caravan!

    1. Accidentally hitting the Start switch will illuminate the "Generator Off" light.

    2. The most common turbo-prop airplane used for skydiving in the world is the Caravan. (For more information about flying skydivers, check out our affiliate site SkydiverDriver.com)

    3. The Caravan's firewall was tested to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

    4. The Cessna logo can be seen in the pattern of rivets in front of the co-pilot's door.

    5. The Caravan cruises 10 knots faster and 50nm further without the cargo pod installed.

    6. If the Torque gauge fails, you can use the Fuel Flow gauge to set power settings: Climb = 400, Cruise = 300 and Approach = 200

    7. Single point fuel system is available for the Caravan.

    8. You only have 90 seconds of fuel remaining if the red reservoir low light illuminates.

    9. Boot activation increases the stall speed by 10 knots.

    10. If you accidentally drop your pen in the hole between the rudder pedal and power column, be sure and get it out because it can cause a rudder jam.

      Please share your not-so-commonly known facts about the Caravan with us below or by sending them to info@caravannation.com

      Information compiled for this article is from the archives of CaravanNation.com and from the book Caravan: Cessna's Swiss Army Knife with Wings.

      Monday, April 29, 2019

      Mokulele to Add New Routes and Test Electric Hybrid Airplane


      Mokulele to Add New Routes and Test Electric Hybrid Airplane

      As reported by Beat of Hawaii

      Starting June 17, Mokulele Airlines will fly twice daily between Maui and Lanai from $57 each way. That, following the acquisition of Mokulele by Memphis based Southern Airways Express a few months ago.
      And the company is looking to expand the Mokulele brand here in Hawaii with more Hawaii inter-island routes later this year.
      "When we purchased Mokulele just over 2 and a half months ago, we made a promise to the people of Hawaii that we would bring more aircraft, newer aircraft, more departures and more destinations than this airline has ever served." -- Mokulele Airlines (Southern Airways Express)
      Mokulele plans to test a new hybrid aircraft model on their Kahului to Hana Maui route starting this fall. That as a result of a partnership between Mokulele and Ampaire. Ampaire spokesman said, "with a short flight, it shows off the technology and its benefits. Hawaii's focus on sustainability also makes it more aligned with our own vision." He added that potential fuel savings of 50-70% are possible with 25-50% maintenance cost reduction. The company's site says "Ampaire is on a mission to provide the world with all-electric powered commercial flights that are affordable, quiet and environmentally conscious."
      If things go well, such planes, carrying up to 9 passengers, could serve longer routes, including between Honolulu and Maui.