Wednesday, March 7, 2018

Make Your Flight Training Plans Now!

If you are looking for Caravan or King Air Initial or Recurrent training, train with our partners at Turbine Training Center!

After your training is complete we will provide Job Placement Assistance for you with our extensive connections with Caravan and King Air operators worldwide.

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Review - Inadvertent Encounter with Freezing Rain

Procedures for Encounter with Freezing Rain

During this time of year, if you are a pilot in the Northern Hemisphere there is a possibility that you will fly into freezing rain. So we thought that now would be a good time for us Caravan Pilots to review procedures in the icing environment.

Please remember that the procedures found below are for the Cessna Model 208B (675 SHP) and no others. If you are flying a different model Caravan, please review your aircraft's FAA approved Abbreviated Checklist or Airplane Flight Manual for that specific model. 

Cessna's procedures for Inadvertent encounter with freezing rain or freezing drizzle:


  1.  Power - INCREASE to takeoff power (not to exceed 805 degrees ITT or 101.6% Ng).
  2.  Airspeed - MAINTAIN 120 KIAS or greater (110 KIAS if climbing to exit icing).
  3.  De-Ice boots - CYCLE to obtain best possible clearing.
  4.  ATC - NOTIFY and request priority handling to exit condition.


  1.  Approach - PLAN straight in approach if possible.
  2.  ATC - NOTIFY and request priority handling to exit condition.
  3.  Power - INCREASE to hold airspeed and glidepath (not to exceed 805 degrees ITT or 101.6% Ng).
  4.  Airspeed - 120 KIAS (or greater).
  5.  Flaps 10 degrees
  6.  Airspeed - Maintain 120 KIAS if possible (minimum speed for flight in icing with 10 degrees flaps of 105 KIAS)

Minimum Speed in Icing Conditions (for all phases of flight including approach, except take-off and landing):

  • Flaps Up: 120 KIAS
  • Flaps 10: 105 KIAS
  • Flaps 20: 95 KIAS

When climbing to exit icing conditions the following airspeeds may be used only for the duration of the climb to exit operation: (Maneuvering should be limited to 30 degrees of bank)

  • Flaps Up: 110 KIAS
  • Flaps 10: 95 KIAS


1. Recommended airspeed with ice on the airplane:

  • Flaps 10: 120 KIAS

2. If 120 KIAS can not be maintained or other airfield constraints dictate use of other flaps or speeds, the following speeds can be used at the discretion of the pilot.

  • Flaps Up: 110 - 120 KIAS
  • Flaps 10: 105 - 110 KIAS
  • Flaps 20: 95 - 100 KIAS

If you are a Caravan pilot, I highly recommend that you complete some of Cessna's E-Learning courses on this topic. Courses such as "Caravan Cold Weather Ops" and "Caravan Vodcast Ground Icing Conditions". There are many other interesting courses available, most of which are free and are all available at

Fellow Caravan Pilots, please remember to Review Often and Fly Safe so that you can continue to Love What You Do!

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

The Mexican Power Lever


When pilot’s get together, there are always stories shared and this is one of them. I’m not sure how true this is and would love to know if anyone knows the full details of the story. But I thought it was an entertaining story nonetheless.
There was a small piston plane charter company that operated into short grass strips in Mexico. It operated Cessna 206’s for a good number of years. As the company grew, the company had to expand and bought some Caravans.
After operating the aircraft for a few months, they started to get excessive engine temperature readings. The company contacted Cessna who analysed the trend data and decided that they had to do a hot section inspection of the engine. On disassembling the engine, they found the rotor blades to be in ruins and metal filings all over.
Cessna could not figure out what was happening to the engines, so they made the trip down to Mexico to see what the operation was like. They flew with the company into one of the strips and everything seemed normal, except when they had to take off from the short grass airstrip. On take-off the pilot proceeded to push the power lever all the way to the firewall and then when they were struggling to get off the ground, he took the EPL out of the gate.
When they landed, the engineers questioned the pilot and asked why he was the EPL, the pilot responded and said, “This is how we have always operated the aircraft, when we don’t have enough power on take-off, we use the EPL, the Extra Power Lever. That’s where the Emergency Power Lever got the nickname, the Mexican Power Lever.

If you would like more information on the proper use of the EPL go to this POH link on Caravan Nation and scroll to page 7-44 & 7-45.

For more interesting aviation articles, visit

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Night Disorientation in a Caravan

By Armand Vilches
Only days out of training a young pilot was seduced by the black hole syndrome that has claimed too many unwary flyers.
The enthusiasm and awareness that often accompanies a new job can be an exhilarating experience. There were, no doubt, many thoughts running through this pilot’s mind as he lifted off on the next leg of his flight into the black of night. But one thought should have taken precedence—fly the airplane.

Flying Freight

The commercial pilot held ratings for single- and multi-engine land airplane and instrument airplane. He also held a flight instructor certificate with the same privileges. A review of his logbook, after the accident, indicated a young, but experienced pilot, albeit he was light in make and model. His logbook listed 1921 hours of which 142 hours were at night and 47 hours were in actual instrument conditions. But he had only 34 hours in a Cessna 208B Caravan. As a rule of thumb, pilots are generally not considered experienced in an aircraft until they have accumulated at least 100 hours of make and model time.
The pilot joined the company a little over a month before the accident. He successfully completed his training and Part 135 check ride over the course of 10 days. A month after completing his training program, the pilot began an initial operating experience (IOE) period with a senior company captain by his side. This IOE training was completed in five days.
The pilot was then deemed proficient to fly under IFR and he began flying solo until the accident flight just three days later.

The Environment

Although the equipment, by some standards, has improved over what was available in the old piston-powered twin-engine aircraft freight-dog days, feeding the larger city hubs is still predominantly conducted single-pilot, at night, and from rural airports in poorly lit areas of the country. There is a lot of pressure to complete each flight quickly and efficiently. Keeping contracts with the major freight companies is a priority in this highly competitive business.
Three witnesses who spoke with the pilot when he arrived at Pellston Regional Airport (KPLN), in Pellston, Michigan, all said the pilot appeared alert and awake. The pilot wanted 30 gallons of fuel and needed to make a “quick turn.”
It was night and the weather was VFR. The automated report an hour before the accident indicated winds out of the southwest a 10 knots gusting to 16 knots. Visibility was 10 miles and the ceiling was reported as broken at 3600 feet and 4800 feet respectively, and then overcast at 5500 feet.
Another pilot who was also flying a Cessna Caravan, for a competing freight company, began taxing out from the ramp. He noticed and waved to the accident pilot. This pilot noted nothing unusual about the accident Caravan or pilot. He did, however, comment on the weather conditions he encountered during his departure five or so minutes before the accident flight.
A Cessna Caravan launches at night

This pilot described the flight conditions as bumpy. He also noted that when the wind is out of the southwest, as it was that evening, it is usually a turbulent departure to about 1000 feet AGL. This pilot further emphasized that he would not characterize it as being wind shear conditions, just bumpy.
During his interview with the NTSB this pilot also described Runway 23 departures at night as being black hole departures, and he routinely was on the gauges during climb-outs from this particular runway.  The pilot also commented that conditions were VFR all the way to 6000 feet that evening. While this pilot didn’t comment on the ground lights, conditions had to be dark over the sparsely lit northern Lower Michigan terrain.

Vestibular Illusions

Once the cargo was loaded, the accident pilot started the Caravan and began to taxi to Runway 23. The pilot would be departing IFR for a flight to Lansing, Michigan. Nothing unusual was noted by the ramp personnel, who went back inside the FBO as the aircraft rolled away.
Inside the aircraft the pilot had a Garmin 696 handheld GPS. These units have memory chips from which considerable flight information can be gleaned by investigators, but only if the unit is not too severally damaged by the accident. Essentially, some of the modern electronics in general aviation are beginning to act as de facto flight recorders.
In this case the data was recoverable, and a study of the data allowed the NTSB to create an extensive flight simulation model.
The first significant GPS point has the Caravan climbing at 700 feet-per-minute and accelerating to 91 knots through 14 feet AGL. This was on a heading of 223 degrees. The aircraft continued climbing at a rate of 500 to 700 feet per minute to an altitude of 240 feet above the ground while also continuing its acceleration. Then the rate of climb begins to slow as the aircraft reaches 260 feet AGL. At this point the aircraft starts a descent that continues until it impacts wooded terrain a mile away.
Moreover, shortly after liftoff, the Caravan entered a right turn with a bank angle of up to 12 degrees. This bank caused the aircraft to turn 42 degrees right of runway centerline. During this bank the aircraft was also in a nose down pitch attitude of at least two degrees. Based on the GPS information, the NTSB estimated the elapsed time from take-off to impact to be 54 seconds.

The inner ear is the source of our balance. The somatogravic illusion causes the inner ear to tell us that when an aircraft is accelerating it is pitched up and climbing even if it is descending.

The study went further. It investigated the load factor vectors, which would have been present, and then compared this information to the human vestibular system. This allowed the investigators to estimate the apparent sensations of motion being experienced by the pilot. Based on the study, the pilot would not have felt any roll, and he would have believed his pitch angle was always greater than zero. In other words the pilot would have sensed he was holding heading and climbing out straight ahead.
It’s almost certain the pilot succumbed to somatogravic illusion even while the aircraft was descending. This illusion creates a sensation of climb in the vestibular system, when a smooth and rapid acceleration is sensed by the body. A great way to personally experience the sensation is to close your eyes and keep your head motionless the next time you are seated in the back of an airliner waiting for it to begin its take-off roll. As the aircraft accelerates down the runway your vestibular system will indicate a pitch-up sensation well before the aircraft starts to rotate.
Based on the above, it is difficult to disagree with the NTSB’s probable finding: “The pilot’s inadvertent controlled descent into terrain due to spatial disorientation. Contributing to the accident was lack of visual reference due to night conditions.”

Trust Your Instruments

Trusting our instruments is an old aviation adage, but it needs to be followed while we perform hawk-like instrument scans in IMC. This pilot wasn’t a neophyte to flight, even with his low make and model time, and a Cessna Caravan is not overly difficult to fly, so what happened? Perhaps the pilot relaxed his instrument scan because the conditions were being reported as VFR, or perhaps he was distracted from concentrating on the task at hand by his need to quickly depart in order to make the next leg.
Any pilot can be affected by spatial disorientation, regardless of his or her experience level, even when the flying is in an airline crew environment.
Unfortunately, spatial disorientation accidents repeat themselves with regularity in the NTSB reports. A quick and unscientific review of NTSB records, during a recent five year period, listed spatial disorientation as a probable cause in more than 100 accidents. Even more depressing is the fact that over 90-percent of these accidents had a fatality.
These fatality rates are worse than what would be expected when playing Russian roulette with five loaded chambers in a six-round revolver.

Checkpilot Recriminations

The thoughts that may have consumed the company pilot who performed the pilot’s checkride might also be considered. Most certainly he covered all of the pertinent maneuvers and procedures required of the new pilot to demonstrate competency. But how do you evaluate a person’s potential mind-set that prevailed that fateful night.

Your instruments are your friends during climbout following a night takeoff.

No doubt this senior captain may add an awareness factor to subsequent reviews of new pilots and their understanding of the black hole syndrome and the need to maintain focus on the task at-hand.
Let’s do ourselves and others a favor by making a commitment to become and/or remain proficient on the gauges, and to never relax our scan during night VFR departures.

This article appeared on October 2017

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Patient AirLift Services / Sky Hope is looking for Caravan Owners and Pilots

Disaster Relief operations continue at PALS Sky Hope! It’s been four weeks since Maria made landfall, but folks are still in desperate need of help!   

PALS has teamed up with Rescue Global and Airlink to provide relief in the island of Dominica, where over 90% of the island has been destroyed by Hurricane Maria. The premature departure of larger NGOs and government agencies that normally provide lift and aid has left tens of thousands in dire need of our help.  General Aviation is of vital importance! 

THE NEED: C-208 pilots with aircraft who would be willing to give a few days of flying between now and the end of October. (Possibly into November)

THE MISSIONS: Flights in and out of the island of Dominica and surrounding islands to provide imminently needed humanitarian aid as well as transporting evacuees with critical health needs. You would need to be comfortable landing at TDCF (Canefield) airport, a 3000 ft asphalt runway, with a right turn approach over some terrain.

THE OPERATION: Thanks to Rescue Global, a base of operations has been established in Barbados. Accommodations and food are provided at Holders House a very nice set-up! (see pic below).  TheFuel in Barbados is at cost, there is 50% off handling and waived fees.  All customs paperwork is being handled by Rescue Global—all you have to do is file and fly! 

Most importantly, this is a chance for truly impactful, life-saving work!  

HOW TO HELP:  If you can devote some time between now and the end of October, please register here ASAP and a Pilot Coordinator will be in contact with next steps.  

"Changing Lives, One Flight at a Time"

Friday, September 8, 2017

5 Quick Tips for Caravan Pilots

Today we're sharing a useful list for Caravan Pilots composed by our friends at Bush Pilot HQ! Visit this wonderful resource at

This may go without saying, but if you have a large fuel imbalance and no autopilot, you’ll feel it. Balancing fuel reduces the roll load you’ll feel when landing and taking off. Making your life easier.

Set your seat at a constant position, the same incline and height every time. If the height of your seat is consistently changing, the attitude that feels right for flaring changes. This is a good tip for any type of flying as well as the caravan.

Don’t forget the armrests! These are lifesavers, once I have levelled off, armrests = out. If you have passengers up front with you (like in Botswana), show them how the armrests work.

If you’re operating in a single crew environment use the overhead panel air vent for yourself and point the co-pilot’s in your direction. When you do have someone upfront with you, make sure to point it back at them or else you’re just being mean.

Take a towel or cloth with you for making the, “poor man’s sunshield” (see blog title picture for example). Things do get quite hot upfront in the caravan when you’re flying directly into the sun and that extra bit of protection makes a massive difference. It also protects your face from those harmful UV rays.

And finally, just a quick extra tip for making things slightly more comfortable for your passengers. Explain to them how the air vents are used, this may come easy to us but some passengers are unaware of these things.

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

How to Become a Jungle Pilot

How to Become a Jungle Pilot
By Louise (

“The village was engulfed in flames. I circled overhead and saw there was a battle going on at the landing strip. I realized that I was just about to land in a war zone!”  How did Swedish born Elin Larsson end up as a jungle pilot in Indonesia? 

She spent four years flying passengers and all sorts of cargo (literally all sorts) in her Cessna C208B Grand Caravan.  Recently she published a book about her adventures in the wild and remote jungles of Indonesia. I talked to her about living an extraordinary life.

Sometimes Elin Larsson felt like flying back in time
Photo by Emil Sergel

If Indiana Jones was a woman he would be Elin Larsson. Swedish born adventuress, who besides being the sweetest person you ever met is also a surfing enthusiast and a hard core hiker. She furthermore is one of the few people in the world qualified to fly in the dangerous jungles of Indonesia.

Flying Back in Time

In Indonesia the storms are violent, the mountains are enormous and most landing sites are also the village main street. Landing here means avoiding running pigs and flying chickens. And of course keeping the airplane steady on the uneven, bumpy gravel airstrips. Everything there was so different that sometimes Elin Larsson felt like flying back in time.

“Some of the villages had no connection with the rest of the world. One time the locals provided a bowl of water to my plane. Assuming it must be thirsty after the long flight. Adventures like these make me feel alive. It makes me feel that I am using my precious time in a good way.”

No doubt jungle pilot Elin Larsson has chosen an exceptional life. “I always feel much better after doing something a little bit adventurous rather than wasting time watching TV. My goal is to have at least one small adventure every day.”

A Broken Foot

"My goal is to have at least one small adventure every day.”
Photo by Emil Sergel

As a result of her desire for adventure she found herself with a broken foot in Samarida, a small airport in Indonesia. It was during her first year at Susi Air.

She was about to exit the airplane when she stumbled and fell hard onto the tarmac. She felt stupid but even worse was her foot, it was broken. The pain was almost blinding. However she did not want to expose her injury. Because she was afraid that the guys at Susi Air would think that she was a cry baby who could not handle the tough assignment as a jungle pilot.

So she swallowed the pain, boarded the passengers and flew co-pilot back to Bali. “Throughout the landing it was almost impossible for me to use the foot-pedals. Every time I moved the foot I felt a gruesome pain.”

During her years at Susi Air she often heard the story about a crazy co-pilot who flew with a broken foot.  Never revealing that it was actually her.

Failure is Part of the Process

About the same time that Elin Larsson got her pilot license, an Icelandic volcano with a name that no one can pronounce (Eyjafjallajökul) started erupting. This natural disaster affected many airlines and suddenly a lot of experienced pilots were out looking for new employment. This, of course, made the competition harder for anyone newly licensed.

Living in Stockholm at the time, she never gave up her dream of becoming a pilot. She would even work for free as long as it got her closer to her goal. “When I find something that I really want to do I devote all of my energy towards that goal. It is a matter of doing what I am passionate about and avoid wasting energy on things that I don’t want to do.”

Finally, one tired afternoon, Elin Larsson found the job of her dreams; Flying as a jungle pilot for Susi Air in Indonesia.

Following a Dream

But going was not a simple choice. Family and friends advised her not to leave the safety of Sweden. Nevertheless, she decided against them all, packed her flip flops and chose the adventure.

This soon to be a jungle pilot is determined not to waste her life.
Photo by Emil Sergel

“People were giving me advice based on their own fears. Everyone, who knew nothing about Indonesia, gave me the advice to not go. All this negativity surely made me doubt my decision to go. I started to question if this was actually what I really wanted.”

A sad truth is that most people don't fulfill their dreams because they are scared of the opinion of others. Luckily she had the guts not to care that much about other people’s opinions.  And this soon to be jungle pilot was determined not to waste her life.

“I read somewhere what other people think of you is none of your business. Just accept that not everyone around you is going to be supportive of your ideas. Especially if your ideas are a bit out of the ordinary.”

Base Your Decision on Facts

Elin Larsson recommends that you base your decisions on facts
Photo by Elin Larsson

She strongly recommends that everyone spend some time alone every now and then. Doing this has often helped Elin to distinguish between her own dreams and what other people want her to do.
Secondly, she recommends that you base your decisions on facts.

“I find that once I sit down with a pen and paper and actually do the math, I am usually closer to my dreams than I thought. Maybe you are not quite there yet but once you have it on a piece of paper you have something to work towards. If you really want to make it happen - make a plan! “Says Elin Larsson.

What the Hell was I Thinking?

What the hell was I thinking leaving the safety of Sweden?
Photo by Emil Sergel

Reading her book I understand some of her experiences must have been challenging both mentally and emotionally.  I asked her if she had moments when she thought, ‘What the hell was I thinking leaving the safety of Sweden?'

“Absolutely. I found that happening quite a bit while flying in the mountains. The weather and the general conditions changed so fast. Some days it was hard to be on top of everything at all times.  We never flew ourselves into any situation unless we had a plan a, b and c to get ourselves out of there.”

"No matter how experienced you are, you can never control everything flying out there; the terrain, the weather, the insane amount of other planes, the crazy landing strips and the political instability."
“I am extremely happy and proud that I am one of the very few mountain pilots in the world. It was magnificent flying but I am really happy that I made it out safely.”

Crossing Comfort Zones

 Elin Larsson often flew to villages in the mountains that used to be isolated from civilization
Photo by Emil Sergel

As a jungle pilot Elin Larsson often flew to villages in the mountains that were isolated from civilization. It was an unforgiving environment to fly in, with no room for guessing or being too relaxed about any situation.

I very, very seldom find myself outside my comfort zone
Elin surfing

“I very seldomly find myself outside of my comfort zone. I am a coward that actually doesn't like taking risks. That might sound weird, but it is true."

"I didn’t start out landing on the craziest runways, hiking the steepest route or surfing the biggest waves. It took a lot of time building my experience, knowledge and confidence. You don't have to be an adrenaline junkie to live an adventurous life.”

Clash of Cultures

Being a tall blond from the other side of the Planet did some times result in a clash of cultures. “It is the passion that keeps me going and sometimes I don’t even realize that I fail along the way. I just see failure as a natural part of the process to get to where I want to be. Sometimes I almost think it is fun when it is hard to get what I want. I like to fight for things, so failures don't bother me that much."

I like to fight for things so failures don’t bother me that much
Photo by Emil Sergel

"When I was younger it was sometimes hard to distinguish between what I wanted to do and what 'society' wanted me to do. Now I am much better at identifying what I am passionate about and I just focus on that.”

For more great articles about Caravan pilots, visit

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Pen Cap Causes Power Lever Problems for Caravan

Most of us pilots have dropped our pen and/or pen cap onto the floor of an airplane that we were flying. It is very important for you, when it is safe, to retrieve any item that has fallen onto the floor of the airplane.

That item has the possibility of causing major problems for you on that flight or one in the future. I have personally had a pen fall and roll behind the rudder pedal while I was taxiing, which prevented me from being able to fully steer the airplane on the ground. Luckily it did not prevent me from stopping the airplane. 

As you will read below, a pilot of a Cessna Caravan found himself unable to reduce the power to idle because of a pen cap that had fallen under the power quadrant.

It does not take a great imagination to think of different scenarios where that situation could have led to an accident.

As submitted to the FAA: "On short final, the pilot could not reduce power to idle. An emergency was declared but the flight landed without further incident. 

Maintenance personnel were unable to duplicate the problem. The pilot later reported the “binding throttle” recurred, though not as severe. 

A detailed inspection of all related linkages, cables and components found the power lever control aft linkage out of rig and a pen cap in the bottom of the throttle quadrant."

Luckily no one was hurt in that situation. It serves as a reminder to us to keep the cockpit tidy.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

New UK Air Taxi Company Waves Technologies Selects Grand Caravan EX

A new air taxi company Waves Technologies, based at Guernsey UK, recently announced that it has selected the Cessna Grand Caravan EX as the aircraft that it will operate between the Channel Islands. The company is about to take delivery of the first of 3 Grand Caravan EX. Their service will commence in August of this year.

On the Waves Technologies website they promise to offer "... affordable, fixed-price flights to Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Northern France, and South England." and "... a service that moves with the times and embraces the fast evolving new technology available to all of us."

The company will be competing with local airlines with competitive pricing and better service.

Textron Aviation, owner of Cessna Aircraft Company, expects many more orders of the Grand Caravan EX in the coming years due to a new European rule allowing commercial air transport companies to use single-engine turboprops in IMC.

Monday, June 26, 2017

What are DROTAMs? Something Every Pilot Should Know.

What are DROTAMs?

If you Google search "drotam" you might find that it is a drug that helps with muscle spasms, but that's not what we're talking about today (sorry, I couldn't resist). If you're a pilot, go ahead and add this word to your vocabulary. It is a word that was coined by SkyVector, but I promise you, it is a word and a thing that we will see more and more of. 

Every year that goes by, it seems, drones are having a larger and larger impact on the aviation community. On this site we have written about drones almost colliding with Caravans. To help reduce drone vs. manned aircraft collisions, there are now DROTAMs.

On the SkyVector website we learn that, "DROTAMs™ are what SkyVector calls "Drone NOTAMs", or Notices to Airmen defining unmanned aerial systems operating areas (UAS OA)."

"The U.S. Air Force, Customs and Border Protection Agency, public operators with a Certificate of Authorization (COA), or private commercial operators granted a Section 333 exemption may issue NOTAMs to advise pilots of their activities."

Everyone seems to have an opinion about drones, let us know what yours are in the comments section below.